This guide is intended to give you a basic idea of the major functions of a snow blower, like the example below that comes from from leading brand Stiga.
For this example we have chosen a dual-stage snow blower as they have more functions. Most of these will be the same as single-stage machines, with some differences. the main difference is that the dual-stage model shave an impeller that sits behind the auger (not visible in this picture)
For your information, here is where the impeller sits. It is a like a fan, mounted on a disc which spins on the vertical and throws the snow up the exit/discharge chute (see image below)